THE JXTS. « which would scarcely be possible in any country but India, is this, that a name has sometimes been changed simply through the mistake of a copying clerk. Thus, a village in the Kosi pargana had always been known as Chacholi till the name was inadvertently copied in the settlement papers as Piloli and has remained so ever since. Similarly with two populous villages, now called Great and Little Bharaa, in the Chhata pargana : the Bhama Khurd of the record-room is Lohra Mama on the spot; lohra being the Hindi equivalent for the more common ehfiotd, 'little,' and Mama being the original name, which from the close resemblance in Nagari writing of m to bh has been corrupted by a clerical error into Bhama. As in almost every part of the country where Hindus are predominant, the population consists mainly of Brahmans, TMkurs, and Baniyas ; but to these three classes a fourth of equal extent, the Jats, must be added as the specially distinctive element. During part of last century the ancestors of the Jat Raja, who still governs the border State of Bharat-purj exercised sovereign power over nearly all the western half of the district; and their influence on the country has been so great and so permanent in its results that they are justly entitled to first mention. Nothing more clearly indicated the alien character of the Jalesar pargana than the fact that in all its 203 village" the Jats occupied only one ; in Kosi and Maha-ban they hold more than half the entire number and in Chhata at least one-ihird, It is said that Hie local traditions of Bayana and Bharat-por point to Kanda- har as the parent country of the Jats, and attempts have beea made* to prove their ancient power and renown by identifying them with certain tribes men- tioned by the later classical authors—the Xanthii of Strabo, the Xuthii of Dionysius of Samosj the Jatii of Pliny and Ptolemy—and at a more recent period with the Jats or Zaths, whom the Muhammadans found in Sindh when they first invaded that country.! These are the speculations of European scholars, which, it is needless to say, have never reached the ears of the persons " most interested in the discussion. But lately the subject has attracted the attention of Native enquirers also, and a novel theory was propounded in a little Sanskrit pamphlet, entitled Jatharotpati, compiled by Sastri Angad Sarinma for the gratification cf Pandit Giri Prasad, himself an accomplished --------------------------.----------------------—----^---------------- „ -.----------- * Cunningham's Archaeological Survey, Vol. II., page 65. tTod,however, considered the last-mentioned tribe quite distinct. He writes: ''The Jats or Jits, far more numerous than perhaps all the Rajput tribes put together, still retain their ancient appellation throughout the whole of Sindh. They are amoflgst the oldest conrerts to Islam."